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Franky So

Walter and Ida Freeman Distinguished Professor

NC State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Raleigh, NC 27695


So received his B.A. degree in physics from Hamilton College, his M.S. degree in materials science from MIT and his Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Southern California. He started his career as a research scientist at Hoechst Celanese and Motorola Corporate Research Laboratories. While at Motorola, he was instrumental to commercialization of the world’s first organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays used in mobile phones in 2000. He later became the head of OLED Research at OSRAM Opto Semiconductors. In 2005, he joined the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Florida and later became the Rolf E. Hummel Professor of Electronic Materials. He is a Fellow of the National Academy of Inventors, Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineers (IEEE), Optical Society of America (OSA) and International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE).

Research interests

Prof. So’s research interest is in the area of organic and nanocrystal materials for optoelectronic device applications. He is currently studying the morphological, dielectric and interfacial effects on the properties of polymeric solar cells. So is also investigating the use of corrugated substrates to enhance the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs. His interests include:

  • Organic and molecular electronic materials and devices
  • small molecular organic materials
  • conjugated polymers and organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials
  • quantum dots
  • carrier transport
  • photophysics and optoelectronic devices such as light emitting devices, solar cells, novel transistors and optical sensors

Select Publications | Full list: Google Scholar link

I. Constantinou, X. Yi, N. T. Shewmon, E. D. Klump, C. Peng, S. Garakyaraghi, C. Kin Lo, J. R. Reynolds, F. N. Castellano, F. So, Effect of Polymer-Fullerene Interaction on the Dielectric Properties of the Blend, Adv. Energy Mater. 7, 1601947 (2017). link

Yu Luo, Shuyi Liu, Nilesh Barange, Li Wang, Franky So, Perovskite Solar Cells on Corrugated Substrates with Enhanced Efficiency, Small 12, 6345(2016). link

T. Shewmon, HG Yu, I. Constantinou, E. Klump and F. So, Formation of perovskite heterostructures by ion exchange, Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8, 33273 (2016). link

Erik Klump, Iordania Constantinou, Tzung-Han Lai, Franky So, Utilizing Forster Resonance Energy Transfer to Extend Spectral Response of PCDTBT:PCBM Solar Cells, Org. Electron. 42, 87 (2017). link

Iordania Constantinou, Nathan Shewman, Chi Kin Lo, James Delinger, John Reynolds and Franky So, Photodegradation of metal oxide interlayers in polymer solar cells, Adv. Mater. Interfaces 3, 1600741 (2016). link

Ho, Y. Chen, S. Liu, C. Peng, D. Zhao and F. So, Interface effect of efficiency loss in OLEDs with solution processed emitting layers, Adv. Mater. & Interfaces 3, 1600320 (2016). link

Hyeonggeun Yu, Doyoung Kim, Jinhyung Lee, Sujin Baek, Jaewoong Lee, Rajiv Singh, and Franky So, High gain infrared-to-visible up-conversion light emitting transistors, Nat. Photonics 10, 129 (2016). link

Caroline Grand, Sujin Baek, Tzung-Han Lai, Nabankur Deb, Wojciech Zajaczkowski, Romain Stalder, Klaus Müllen, Wojciech Pisula, David G. Bucknall, Franky So, John R. Reynolds, Structure–Property Relationships Directing Transport and Charge Separation in Isoindigo Polymers, Macromolecules 49, 4008 (2016). link

Chaoyu Xiang, Xiangyu Fu, Wei Wei, Rui Liu, Yong Zhang, Viktor Balema, Bryce Nelson and Franky So, Efficiency Roll-off in Blue Emitting Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes with Carbazole Host Materials, Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 1463 (2016). link

W. Lee, D. Y. Kim, S. Baek, H. Yu and F. So, Inorganic UV-Visible-SWIR boardband photodetectors based on monodispersed PbS nanocrystals, Small 12, 1256 (2016). link

Xiang, C. Peng, Y. Chen and F. So, Origin of Sub-bandgap Electroluminescence in Organic Light Emitting Diodes, Small 11, 5439 (2015). link

J.R. Gautam, R. Younts, W. Li, L. Yan, E. Danilov, E. Klump, I. Constantinou, F. So, W. You, H. Ade and K. Gundogdu, Charge photogeneration in organic photovoltaics: Role of hot versus cold charge transfer excitons, Adv. Energy Mater. 6, 1051032 (2016). link

Volz, Y. Chen, M. Wallesch, R. Liu, C. Flechon, D.M. Zink, Jana Friedrichs, H. Flugge, R. Steinnger, J. Gottlicher, C. Heske, L. Weinhardt, S. Brase, F. So and T. Baumann, Bridging the efficiency gap: Fully Bridged Dinuclear Cu(I)- complexes for singlet harvesting in high efficiency OLEDs, Adv. Mater. 27, 2538 (2015). link

D. Zhao, M. Sexton, H.-y. Park, D. Y. Kim, G. Braue, J. C. Nino, and F. So, High efficiency solution processed planar perovskite solar cells with a polymer hole transport layer, Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 1401855 (2015). link

J. Lee, D. Y. Kim and F. So, Unraveling the gain mechanism in high performance solution processed PbS Infrared quantum PIN photodiodes, Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 1233 (2014). link

S. Chen, S.-W. Tsang, T.-H. Lai, J. R. Reynolds, and F. So, Dielectric effect on the photovoltage loss in organic photovoltage cells, Adv. Mater. 26, 6125 (2014). link

J. R. Manders, T.-H. Lai, Y. An, W. Xu, G. Bosman, F. So, Low-Noise Multispectral Photodetectors Made from All Solution-Processed Inorganic Semiconductors, Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 7205 (2014). link

K.H. Lee, Zhao Li, D. Constantinou, F/ So, S. W. Tsang, S. K. So, Batch-to-Batch Variation of Polymeric Photovoltaic Materials: its Origin and Impacts on Charge Carrier Transport and Device Performances, Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1400768 (2014). link

C. E. Small, S.-W. Tsang, S. Chen, C. M. Amb, J. Subbiah, J. R. Reynolds, F. So, Loss Mechanism in Thick-Film Organic Photovoltaic Cell with Low Bandgap Polymer, Adv. Energy Mater. 3, 909 (2013). link

W. Tsang, S. Chen and F. So, Energy Alignment and Sub-bandgap charge generation in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells, Adv. Mater. 25, 2434 (2013). link

Manders, S. Chen, S.W. Tsang, C. Amb, J.R. Reynolds and F. So, Solution-Processed Nickel Oxide Hole Transport Layers in High Efficiency Polymer Photovoltaic Cells, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 2993 (2013). link

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, R. Song, L. Zhao, N. Tansu, F. So, Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array, Adva.d Funct. Mater. 3453 (2012). link

P. Beaujuge, H. N. Tsao, M.R. Hansen, C. Amb, C. Risko,  J. Subbiah,  K. Choudhury, A. Mavrinskiy, W. Pisula, J.-L. Bredas, F. So, K. Mullen, J. Reynolds, Synthetic Principles Directing Charge Transport in Low Band-Gap Dithienosilole-Benzothiadiazole Copolymers, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 134, 8944 (2012). link.

C. Small, S. Chen, J. Subbiah, C. Amb, S.-W. Tsang T. Lai, J. Reynolds, F. So, Franky, High-efficiency inverted dithienogermole-thienopyrrolodione-baesd polymer solar cells, Nature Photonics, 6, 115, (2012). link

A. Amb, S. Chen, K.R. Graham, J. Subbiah, C.E. Small, F. So, and J.R. Reynolds, Dithienogermole as a fused electron donor in bulk heterojunction solar cells, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 10062 (2011). link

Chen, K. Roy Choudhury, J. Subbiah, C.M. Amb, J.R. Reynolds, and F. So, Photo-carrier recombination in polymer solar cells based on P3HT and silole-based copolymer, Adv. Energy Mater. 1, 963 (2011). link

A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A.G. Rinzler, Low-voltage, Low Power, Organic Light-Emitting Transistors for Active Matrix Displays, Science 332 (2011). link

J. Lee, N. Chopra, D. Bera, S. Maslov, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, E. Wrzesniewski, P. Holloway, J. Xue and F. So, Down-conversion white organic light-emitting diodes using microcavity structure, Adv. Energy Mater. 1, 174 (2011) Journal Cover. link

J. Harding, D. Poplavskyy, V.-E. Choong, F. So and A. J. Campbell, Variations in hole injection due to fast and slow interfacial traps in polymer light emitting diodes with interlayers, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 119 (2010). link

N. Chopra, J. Lee, Y. Zheng, S.-H. Eom, J. Xue and F. So, Effect of the Charge Balance on High-Efficiency Blue-Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1, 1169 (2009). link

Roy Choulhury, J.H. Yoon, and F. So, LiF as an n-dopant in tri(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum thin films, Adv. Mater. 20, 1456 (2008). link

S. Choulis, A. Patwardhan, V.-E. Choong, M. Mathai and F. So, Interface modification to improve hole injection properties in organic electronic devices, Adv. Functional Mater. 16, 1075 (2006). link

R. Forrest, P. E. Burrows, E. I. Haskal, and F. F. So, Ultrahigh-vacuum Quasi-Epitaxial Growth of Model van der Waals Thin Films: Experiments, Phys. Rev. B 49, 11309 (1994). link

F. So, R. Kaplow and R.C. O’Handley, Driving Force for Structural Relaxation in Fe-B Metallic Glasses, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 58, 285 (1983). link